GLOSSARY OF TOPONYMIC TERMINOLOGY

INFO l A l B-C l D-E l F-I l L l M-N l O-P l R-S l T-Z

acronym Word formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the succes­sive or major parts of a composite term. Examples: Soweto (South West Townships); Radar; UNGE­GN.
address Computer location where a particular item is stored.
allograph Each of the particular graphic representations of a grapheme. Examples: in English, ff, ph and gh are allographs off, the graph­eme for the /f/ pho­neme; in German, ss=sz=ß, =æ.
allomorph Each of two or more differing phonological manifestations of a given mor­pheme. Example: the es in boxes and the en in oxen are allomor­phs of the plural morpheme.
allonym Each of two or more toponyms employed in reference to a single topo­graphic feature. Examples: Hull, Kingston upon Hull; Ves­ter­ha­vet, Nordsee; Swansea, Abertawe; Johannesburg, Egoli.
allonym, standardized Each of two or more standardized toponyms given to a single topographic feature. Exam­ples: Biel and Bienne; Casablanca and D_r al-Bay_'; Kaap­stad and Cape Town; Matterhorn and Monte Cervino.
allophone A phone, one of two or more phonetic variants of a pho­neme. Examples: allophones of the /t/ phoneme in Eng­lish Tyne as dis­tinct from American water; alloph­ones of the /r/ pho­neme in Spanish rio as against in Madrid.
alphabet Set of all letters of a language with alphabetic script, ordered in a specific sequence and provided with names for each letter.
alphabetic Relating to an alphabet.
alphabet, conversion An alphabet used in names conversion. Comprehensive term for transcription alphabet and transliteration alphabet.
alphabet, transcription An alphabet that is employed in the process of transcription. Examples: using only z, not c, to represent the dental /ts/-pho­neme in transcription into German; or only k, not c, for transcrib­ing the velar /k/ phoneme into English.
alphabet, transliteration An alphabet that may include diacritics, employed in translit­era­tion. Example: alphabets used in the romanization of non-Roman script, e.g. for classical Arabic omitting C, E, O, P, V and X, but including ` and other markers.
alphabetic script See script, alphabetic.
alphabetic sequence (a) The order in which the letters of an alphabet are customari­ly cited. (b) A body of items listed in this order.
alphabetic sequence rules Sequence rules for alphabetic script.
alphanumeric Representation, e.g. in a computer, which employs not only numer­als but also letters. In a wider sense, also em­ploying punctua­tion marks and mathematical and other symbols.
anthroponym Personal name. Examples: Alfred; `Al_; Everest.
article A morpheme that makes explicit the (usually) definite nature of a noun, and sometimes its gender, number and case. Examples: English the; Spanish el, los, las; French le, la, les; Arabic al-; Hebrew ha-; Romanian -ul.
articulation Physiological movements involved in modifying an airflow to produce speech sounds, using the vocal tract above the larynx.