formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive
or major parts of a composite term. Examples: Soweto (South West Townships);
location where a particular item is stored.
of the particular graphic representations of a grapheme.
Examples: in English, ff, ph and gh are allographs off, the grapheme
for the /f/ phoneme; in German, ss=sz=ß, =æ.
of two or more differing phonological manifestations of
a given morpheme. Example: the es in boxes and
the en in oxen are allomorphs of the plural morpheme.
of two or more toponyms employed in reference to a single topographic
feature. Examples: Hull, Kingston upon Hull; Vesterhavet, Nordsee;
Swansea, Abertawe; Johannesburg, Egoli.
of two or more standardized toponyms given to a single
topographic feature. Examples: Biel and Bienne; Casablanca and D_r
al-Bay_'; Kaapstad and Cape Town; Matterhorn and Monte Cervino.
phone, one of two or more phonetic variants
of a phoneme. Examples: allophones of the /t/ phoneme
in English Tyne as distinct from American water;
allophones of the /r/ phoneme in Spanish rio as against
of all letters of a language with alphabetic script,
ordered in a specific sequence and provided with names for each letter.
to an alphabet.
alphabet used in names conversion. Comprehensive
term for transcription alphabet and transliteration
alphabet that is employed in the process of transcription.
Examples: using only z, not c, to represent the dental /ts/-phoneme
in transcription into German; or only k, not c, for transcribing
the velar /k/ phoneme into English.
alphabet that may include diacritics, employed
in transliteration. Example: alphabets used in the romanization
of non-Roman script, e.g. for classical Arabic omitting C, E, O, P,
V and X, but including ` and other markers.
The order in which the letters of an alphabet
are customarily cited. (b) A body of items listed in this order.
rules for alphabetic script.
e.g. in a computer, which employs not only numerals but also letters.
In a wider sense, also employing punctuation marks and mathematical
and other symbols.
name. Examples: Alfred; `Al_; Everest.
morpheme that makes explicit the (usually) definite nature
of a noun, and sometimes its gender, number and case. Examples: English
the; Spanish el, los, las; French le, la, les; Arabic al-; Hebrew
ha-; Romanian -ul.
movements involved in modifying an airflow to produce speech sounds,
using the vocal tract above the larynx.