GLOSSARY OF TOPONYMIC TERMINOLOGY

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batch processing Method by which items are coded and collected into groups and then processed sequentially in a computer, usually at a later time. Complementary term: interac­tive processing.
bilingualism The habitual use, e.g. by a person or a community, of two lan­guages.
biscriptual Written or printed in two different kinds of script. See also m­ulti­scrip­tual map; multiscriptual gazetteer.
character Graphic symbol used as a unit in writing; more specifical­ly, a graphic symbol in a non-alphabetic writing system. Examples: Chinese # (zhong); Amharic # (h_); Japanese Hiragana _ (no).
character, modified Comprehensive term for simplified character and variant character.
character, simplified Variant of a character which is graphically less complex than its original form. Example: Chinese simplified characters (Jiantizi) with fewer strokes than the corresponding traditional ones.
character, variant Each of two or more characters in a writing system representing the same phonological and/or morphological item (and if alpha­betic ­ belong­ing to the same typeface) but differing in shape, e.g. according to its location in a word. Examples: Arabic  _ = _ = _ ; Hebrew _ = _.
character, vowel In alphabetic or syllabic script, a character, not a marker, repre­senting a vowel. Examples: Roman a; Thai  #  (a); Korean # (a); Amharic  # (_, first vowel character).
choronym Toponym applied to an areal feature.
class, feature Grouping of topographic features with similar characteristics, to facilitate classification, search and retrieval. Example: river, creek, brook, w_d_, etc., all classed under `stream'.
coded representation The representation of an item or of a feature class by an alpha­nu­meric or graphic code; the result of applying a code to any member of a coded set. Examples: 0226 - main road; Ù - moun­tain.
colloquial language See language, colloquial.
composite name See name, composite.
compound name See name, composite.
computer file See file, computer.
computer program See program, computer.
computer record See record, computer.
consonant One of the two main classes of speech sounds, produced by a constriction or closure at one or more points in the breath channel. Examples: /b/, /c/, /d/, /f/ sounds. Complementary term: vowel.
consonant letter See letter, consonant.
consonant script See script, defective alphabetic.
conventional name See exonym. In English usage: the term for exonym.
conversion In toponymy, the process of transferring the phonological and/or morpho­log­i­cal elements of a particular language to another, or from one script to another. Conversion is effected by either tran­scription or translitera­tion.
conversion alphabet conversion table See alphabet, conversion. Comprehensive term for transcription key and translit­era­tion key. See also romanization key.
coordinates, geographical (a) The (spheroidal) net or graticule of lines of latitude (parallels) numbered 0°-90° north and south of the equator, and lines of longi­tude (meridians) numbered 0°-180° east and west of the internation­al zero meridian of Green­wich, used to define location on the Earth's surface (disre­gard­ing altitude) with the aid of angular measure (degrees, minutes and seconds of arc). (b) The value of a point referred to this graticule.
coordinates, rectangular (a) Grid of plane coordinates consisting of two sets of straight lines at right angles to each other and with equal units of length on both axes, superimposed on a (chiefly) topographic map. See also UTM grid. (b) The values of a point referred to such a grid.
coordinates, topographic See coordinates, rectangular.
creole A stable form of speech, derived from a pidgin, which has be­come the sole or principal language of a speech community. Example: Haitian creole (derived from French).
cultural feature See feature, man-made.