GLOSSARY OF TOPONYMIC TERMINOLOGY

INFO l A l B-C l D-E l F-I l L l M-N l O-P l R-S l T-Z

odonym Proper noun of a traffic route feature. Examples: Via Appia (historical road); Airway Amber (air traffic route); M4 (motorway); Fleet Street; Piccadilly Circus; Darb al-_jj (pilgrims' route).
official language See language, official.
onomastics (a) The science that has as its object the study of names. (b) The activity or process of giving names.
oronym Name applied to a feature of topographic elevation such as a moun­tain or a hill. Examples: Matterhorn; Gaur_ankar; Fuji San; Sierra Madre.
orthography Spelling of words according to the prescribed rules of a given linguistic tradition.
phone In phonetics, the smallest perceptible unit of sound in the stream of speech, usually symbolized by square brackets. A specific pho­neme can be realized by different phones called allophones. Examples: [ß] for the `b' sound in Spanish saber as against [b], the `b' sound in Spanish Barcelona.
phoneme The smallest unit of sound in the phonological struc­ture of a lan­guage which changes meaning, usually symbolized by oblique slashes. Exam­ples: /b/; /p/; /ò/ (for English sh). In practice a phoneme is real­ized by variants called allo­phones, usually sym­bol­ized by square brackets, such as [b] in Spanish Barcelo­na and [ß] in saber for the /b/ phoneme, or [e], [], [å] and [] for differ­ent realizations of the /e/ phoneme. See also phone.
phonemic Relating to phonemes.
phonetic, phonetical Relating to phonetics.
phonetics The study and classification of sounds made in spoken language. The minimal phonetic unit is the phone.
phonogram (a) Graphic character representing sound(s). (b) In particular, a pictogram representing not the meaning of its object but the sound of its name in a particular language. Examp­les: pictograms of Egyptian hieroglyphs when used to represent pho­net­ic values, e.g. ¨ (a seat) for p, the initial sound of the word for `seat'.
phonological Relating to phonology.
phonology The study of speech sounds and their functions in a specific lan­guage or in two or more languages considered together for compar­ative purposes.
physical feature See feature, physical.
pictogram Graphic symbol which represents an object via graphic-visual simi­larity in order to convey either its meaning or the sound of its name. See also phonogram.
pidgin A relatively stable form of speech developed as an auxiliary lan­guage, whose vocabulary and sphere of employment are narrowly limited and whose grammar, phonological structure and style are simpler than those of the language(s) from which it was evolved. Examples: Tok Pisin (Neo-Melanesian) based on English; Bazaar Malay in Malay­sia-Indonesia; Petit Maures­que (French-based, in North Africa); Fanagaló (mainly from Zulu, South Afri­ca). A pidgin which be­comes the mother tongue of a linguistic com­mu­ni­ty is said to be creoli­zed. See also creole.
pixel Acronym for `picture element'; the unit of storage and display in raster mode.
place name See toponym; name, place (b).
place name index See index, place names.
portability, data See data portability.
principal language See language, principal.
program, computer A set of instructions directing the computer which operations to perform. Complementary term: data; these can be operated upon by a program.
proper name See noun, proper.
proper noun See noun, proper.