noun of a traffic route feature. Examples: Via Appia (historical
road); Airway Amber (air traffic route); M4 (motorway); Fleet Street;
Piccadilly Circus; Darb al-_jj (pilgrims' route).
The science that has as its object the study of names.
(b) The activity or process of giving names.
applied to a feature of topographic elevation such as a mountain
or a hill. Examples: Matterhorn; Gaur_ankar; Fuji San; Sierra Madre.
of words according to the prescribed rules of a given linguistic tradition.
phonetics, the smallest perceptible unit of sound in the
stream of speech, usually symbolized by square brackets. A specific
phoneme can be realized by different phones called allophones.
Examples: [ß] for the `b' sound in Spanish saber as against
[b], the `b' sound in Spanish Barcelona.
smallest unit of sound in the phonological structure
of a language which changes meaning, usually symbolized
by oblique slashes. Examples: /b/; /p/; /ò/ (for English sh). In
practice a phoneme is realized by variants called allophones,
usually symbolized by square brackets, such as [b] in Spanish Barcelona
and [ß] in saber for the /b/ phoneme, or [e], , [å]
and  for different realizations of the /e/ phoneme. See also phone.
study and classification of sounds made in spoken language. The minimal
phonetic unit is the phone.
Graphic character representing sound(s). (b) In particular,
a pictogram representing not the meaning of its object
but the sound of its name in a particular language. Examples: pictograms
of Egyptian hieroglyphs when used to represent phonetic values,
e.g. ¨ (a seat) for p, the initial sound of the word for `seat'.
study of speech sounds and their functions in a specific language
or in two or more languages considered together for comparative purposes.
symbol which represents an object via graphic-visual similarity in
order to convey either its meaning or the sound of its name. See also
relatively stable form of speech developed as an auxiliary language,
whose vocabulary and sphere of employment are narrowly limited and
whose grammar, phonological structure and
style are simpler than those of the language(s) from which
it was evolved. Examples: Tok Pisin (Neo-Melanesian) based on English;
Bazaar Malay in Malaysia-Indonesia; Petit Mauresque (French-based,
in North Africa); Fanagaló (mainly from Zulu, South Africa). A pidgin
which becomes the mother tongue of a linguistic
community is said to be creolized. See also creole.
for `picture element'; the unit of storage and display in raster
toponym; name, place (b).
index, place names.
set of instructions directing the computer which operations to perform.
Complementary term: data; these can be operated upon by