GLOSSARY OF TOPONYMIC TERMINOLOGY

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false generic element See generic element, false.
feature class See class, feature.
feature name See toponym.
feature, cultural See feature, man-made.
feature, extraterrestrial A topographic feature on any planet other than Earth, or on a satellite. Example: a crater on the moon.
feature, geographical Topographic feature on the surface of the Earth.
feature, hydrographic Topographic feature consisting of water, or associated mainly with water but not consisting of dry land. Examples: lake; under­ground reservoir; but not an island.
feature, man-made Topographic feature made, or significantly modified, by man. Examples: canal; road; populated place. Com­plementary term: feature, natural.
feature, natural Topographic feature not made or significantly modified by man. Examples: river (but not canal); forest (but not plantation). Comple­mentary term: feature, man-made.
feature, physical Any topographic feature which can be observed visually. Exam­ples: mountain; river; road; building; but not e.g. an unmarked political bound­ary.
feature, topographic A portion of the surface of the Earth or of any other planet or satellite that has recognizable identity.
feature, undersea A portion of that part of the Earth which lies beneath the surface of an ocean or a sea, and which has recognizable identity. Examples: Dogger Bank, Mariana Trench.
field, data See data field.
file format See format, file.
file, computer Organized, ordered and named collection of computer records.
firmware Computer programs and procedures programmed onto a card or board and inserted into or fixed in a computer. It is not changeable by software commands.
font A typeface of a specified type, style and size. Example: 12-point bold Times New Roman; 10 cpi (character-per-inch) Brougham italic.
format Size and general arrangement of a written or printed document. See also format, file.
format, computer See format, file.
format, file The arrangement of data in a computer file (e.g. records and fields, numeric and alphanumeric, fixed or floating-point, etc.). Usually referred to simply as format.
full title See long form (of a name).
gazetteer List of toponyms arranged in alphabetic or other sequential order, with an indication of their location and preferably including variant names, type of topographic feature and other defining or descrip­tive informa­tion.
gazetteer, index Ordered list of toponyms, with or without additional data, serving as a guide to the source in which they appear. Example: index gazetteer appended to an atlas.
gazetteer, multilingual Gazetteer which, for a particular topographic feature, shows allo­nyms in different languages, not necessarily standardized. Exam­ples: Athens (Athína); Moscou (Moskva).
gazetteer, multi­scriptual Gazetteer which presents toponyms in two (biscriptual) or more different types of script or writing system. Examples: Aèvá, Athina; ____, Nazareth; ___________, Vladivostok.
gazetteer, place names Term sometimes applied to a list of populated places. See also name, place (b).
generic element That part of a toponym which consists of a generic term. Exam­ples: Port-au-Prince; Sierra Nevada, Newport. The generic element does not necessarily indicate the type or class of feature of the item named. See also false generic element. Complementary term: specific element.
generic element, false Generic element which does not indicate the feature class of the item named. Examples: Mount Isa, `Ayn as-Sul__n, Redhill and Rio de Janeiro are all populated places, not a mountain, spring, hill or river, respectively.
generic term A common noun which describes a topographic feature in terms of its characteristics and not by its proper name. Examples: moun­tain, sierra, san, shan, dagh, jabal, har; river, w_d_, gang. It may form part of a toponym; see generic element. See also ge­neric element, false.
geographical dictionary See dictionary, geographical.
geographical entity See feature, geographical.
geographical feature See feature, geographical.
geographical name See name, geographical.
geographical names standardization See standardization, geographical names.
geographic information system (GIS) Computerized multi-purpose system combining input, processing and output of geographically-referenced data, which often in­cludes maps and toponyms.
GIS See geographic information system.
glossary Specialized list of terms relating to a particular field of study or interest, which may contain explanatory or descriptive information on the items listed. Example: glossary of terms employed in the standardization of geographical names.
grammar The field of study dealing with the formal features of a language and the rules that govern their combination, reference and interpre­tation.
grapheme Graphic representation of a phoneme in a particular language. Examples: j is the grapheme for the /d#/ phoneme in English and for /#/ in French.
graphic form Written or printed character(s), including any diacritics, which represent a linguistic item such as a name. Distinct from spoken and digital form.
graticule See coordinates, geographical (a).
grid, topographic See coordinates, rectangular (a).
guidelines, toponymic Set of rules governing the standardization of a country's topo­nyms and their presentation in maps and gazetteers.
hardware Reference to the computer itself (central processing unit, CPU), as well as to all peripheral input and output devices such as monitors, disks, tape consoles, printers, plotters, digitisers, scanners, etc. Complementary term: software.
historical name See name, historical.
hodonym See odonym.
homonym Each of two or more identical toponyms denoting different top­o­graphic features. Example: Monacó (Principaut de) and Monaco (di Baviera), the Italian exonym for Mnchen.
hydrographic feature See feature, hydrographic.
hydronym Toponym applied to a hydrographic feature.
hyphenization, also hyphen­ation (a) In toponymy, joining two or more elements of a composite name by hyphens; this normally prevents change of word order in an alphabetic listing such as a gazetteer. Examples: Hhr·Gren­zha­usen; Tel-Aviv; Pointe-Sapin-Centre. (b) Placing hyphens between the syllables of a word or between words.
ideogram (a) Graphic symbol which symbolizes a thing or an idea but not necessarily a particular word for it. Used by some writers for logogram. (b) In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a determinative indicating the meaning of (clustered) phonograms.
ideographic script See script, logographic.
index, names See index, toponymic.
index, place names See index, toponymic. Sometimes applied to populated places only. See also place name.
index, toponymic Ordered list of toponyms, including data about location but little or no additional information.
indigenous language See language, indigenous.
indigenous name See name, indigenous.
interactive processing In a computer system, the process of interacting directly with a program and/or data for immediately modifying, re­triev­ing and/or displaying information. This is usually done on a com­puter screen. Complementary term: batch processing.
interface A common boundary at which two different computer systems or portions thereof join or intersect. It can be mechanical or electronic, and can also refer to the interaction between man and computer.
International Pho­netic Alphabet, IPA An internationally recognized set of sym­bols for phonetic tran­scrip­tion. Some examples of IPA notation: [_] for the 'ng' sound in English `sing'; [ò] for the English `sh' sound; [a] for `a' in `art' but [å] for a in `any'; [_] for consonantic `u' in French `Suisse'.
international standard­ization See standardization, international, geographical names.