GLOSSARY OF TOPONYMIC TERMINOLOGY

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man-made feature See feature, man-made.
map lettering See lettering, map.
map, multilingual Map which, for a particular topographic feature, shows allo­nyms in different languages, not necessarily standardized. Exam­ples: Athens, Athína; Moscou, Moskva.
map, multiscriptual Map which presents toponyms in two (biscriptual) or more different types of script or writing systems. Examples: Aè_vá, Athens; ____, Nazareth; ___________, Vladivostok.
map script Toponyms and other verbal and numerical items such as descrip­tive terms and spot and contour elevations in a map. See also lettering, map.
map script, multilin­gual Map script in a multilingual map.
map script, multiscrip­tual Map script in a multiscriptual map.
map, thematic Any geographical map devoted to a special subject and not showing only the surface configuration of the Earth. Examples: geological map, historical map, airways chart. Complementary term: topo­graphic map.
map, topographic A map having as its object the representation of the surface of the Earth or the Moon or of a planet or its satellites, and its topo­graph­ic features ­ natural and man-made. Com­ple­men­tary term: map, thematic.
maritime name See name, maritime.
marker Graphic symbol representing a phoneme, morpheme or other element of a language and used only in combination with an inde­pendent letter or syllabo­gram. Example: Arabic shaddah (dou­bling marker).
marker, vowel A marker employed in defective alphabetic script to represent a vowel. Exam­ples: Arabic , , (a, i, u); He­brew , , , , (a, e, i, o, u), Thai #- , #- , #- (a, i, u).
menu, computer List of options available to an operator, usually displayed in graphic or alphanumeric form on the computer screen.
minority language See language, minority.
minority name See name, minority.
modified character See character, modified.
morpheme The minimal distinctive unit in grammar; the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words. Example: `names' consists of the free morpheme `name' and the bound plural morpheme `s'.
morphological Relating to morphology.
morphology The branch of grammar which studies the structure and form of words in a language.
mother tongue The first language acquired within one's family.
multilingual gazetteer See gazetteer, multilingual.
multilingual map See map, multilingual.
multiscriptual gazetteer See gazetteer, multiscriptual.
multiscriptual map See map, multiscriptual.
name (a) See noun, proper. (b) In the specific context of this glossary: a toponym.
name, alternative See allonym.
name, approved See name, standardized.
name, composite Toponym consisting of a generic element and a specific element, or of a specific element consisting of more than one word. Exam­ples: Mount Cook; Newport; Newfoundland; Kemijoki; Rostov na Donu; Sierra Nevada Oriental; Stoke on Trent. Comple­mentary term: name, simplex.
name, compound See name, composite.
name, conventional See exonym.
name, extraterrestrial Toponym applied to an extraterrestrial feature. Example: Nix Olympica (on Mars).
name, geographical Name applied to a feature on Earth; a special case of a topo­graphic name or toponym.
name, historical Toponym found in historical document(s) and being no more in current use. Exam­ples: Eboracum (for York, England); Medio­lanum (for Milano, Italy); New Amster­dam (for New York, USA); Edo (for Tokyo, Japan).
name, indigenous Toponym in, or derived from, an indigenous language. Exam­ples: Culabah (Aborig­inal, Australia), Empangeni (Zulu, South Africa).
name, local Toponym applied by a geographically limited sector of a lin­guis­tic community to a feature within its area. It may differ from the standardized name.
name, lunar Toponym applied to a feature on the surface of the Moon. Exam­ples: Gagarin; Mare Tranquillitatis.
name, maritime Name of a hydrographic feature associated with the sea. Exam­ples: Estrecho de Magallanes, Bottenhavet/Selkmeri, English Channel.
name, minority Toponym in a minority language.
name, official Toponym sanctioned by a legally constituted (e.g. national) names authori­ty and applied within its jurisdiction.
name, place (a) See toponym. (b) Synonym used by some writers for name of populated place.
name, primary Descriptive name expressed in local terms and language. Exam­ples: Ar-Rub` al-Kh_l_ (the empty quarter, Saudi Arabia); Dasht-e Kav_r (big desert, Iran).
name, proper See noun, proper.
name, simplex Single-word toponym, usually consisting of a specific component only. Examples: Kyiv; Temuko; Malai. Al-Q_hirah (Cairo) is also a simplex name, since in the original Arabic the article al- constitutes a bound mor­pheme, i.e. an integral unhyphenated prefix. Comple­mentary term: name, composite.
name, standardized Name sanctioned by a names authority as the preferred name from among a number of allonyms for a given feature. However, a single feature may have more than one standardized name. Exam­ple: Kaapstad and Cape Town (but not Capetown).
name, topographic See toponym.
name, traditional An exonym in relatively widespread use by a particular linguis­tic community and usually found in its tradition and literature. Exam­ples: Alexandrie (French) for al-Iskandar_yah (Arabic); Jerusa­ln (Span­ish) for Yerushalayim (He­brew); Peking (English) for Beijing (Chi­nese).
name, variant See allonym.
names authority (a) A body such as a person, board or commission, assigned adviso­ry function and/or power of decision in matters of toponymy by a legally constituted entity such as a state. (b) An authority charged with issuing standardized toponyms.
names conversion See conversion.
names index See index, toponymic.
names survey See survey, toponymic.
names transformation See transformation, names.
national language See language, national.
national standardization, geographical names See standardization, national, geographical names.
natural feature See feature, natural.
noise, graphic That which hinders, obstructs or obscures the clear transmission or reception of a graphic message. Examples: `snow' on a television screen; cluttering of a map with too dense graphic information; fuzzy map script.
non-official language See language, non-official.
non-vocalized A written word or text which does not include vocalization.
non-vowelled See non-vocalized.
normalization See standardization.
noun, common A word designating any one of a particular kind of being, place or thing. Examples: toponym, gazetteer, city.
noun, proper A word which uniquely identifies an individual person, place or thing. Examples: Albert, Beijing, Budapest.