GLOSSARY OF TOPONYMIC TERMINOLOGY

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radical, radix Basic form of a logographic character. Example: one of the approximately 240 Chinese basic characters which represent cate­gories of sense, such as the character for 'wood' on the basis of which the logograms for specific kinds of woods, trees etc. are con­structed. (b) See root.
raster mode In a computer, storage and display of data on a dense grid of pixels arranged in columns and rows. Example: Satellite images are normally stored in raster mode. Complementary term: vector mode.
receiver language See language, target.
receiver script See script, target.
record, computer Computer-readable collection of related data pertaining to a single topical item and treated as a unit. Example: a single toponym and its related data such as coordinates, date of ratification and origins.
rectangular coordinates See coordinates, rectangular.
retranscription Re-conversion of a result of transcription into the source lan­guage.
retransliteration Re-conversion of a result of transliteration into the source script. See also reversibility.
reversibility A characteristic of transliteration which permits a written item to be convert­ed from one script or writing system into another, and subse­quently to be reconvert­ed back into the source script, the result being identical with the original.
romanization Conversion from non-Roman into Roman script. Examples: Aèvá Athina; Moc__a Moskva; _____ Bayr_t; __-À___ Tel-Aviv; _ _ _ Nihon.
romanization key Table listing the characters of a non-Roman script together with correspond­ing letters of a Roman alphabet, including diacrit­ics as required. Examples: Roman š_ for Russian Cyrillic _; Roman ps for Greek Ø. Special case of transliteration key
root Reference to a basic item in linguistics. Example: the stem from which a word is derived, such as the cluster of three conso­nants in Semit­ic words, e.g. n z l for nazala (Arabic 'descend') or y r d for yarad ('descend' in Hebrew) and all their derivatives.
script A set of graphic symbols employed in writing or printing a particu­lar language, differing from another set not only by typeface or font. Groups of different scripts form writing systems. Exam­ples: Roman, Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic, Korean, Thai and Hebrew scripts belong to the alphabetic writing system; Amha­ric, Japa­nese Kana and Inuktitut­ (Eskimo) to the syllabic; Chinese Han and Japanese Kanji to the logogra­phic.
script, alphabetic Script belonging to the alphabetic writing system in which a single letter or di- or trigraph in principle represents a single phoneme or diphthong. Examples: Roman, Greek, Cyril­lic, Thai, Arabic and Hebrew are alphabetic, but the latter two are defec­tive, i.e. mainly con­sonant scripts. In (alphabetic) Kore­an, letters are graphi­cally organized in roughly square syllab­ic units.
script, consonant See script, defective alphabetic.
script, defective alphabetic Alphabetic script in which the letters exclusively or predominant­ly represent consonants, vowels being exclusively or primarily repre­sented by non-letter markers in the form of dots or bars above, below or within the consonant letters. Examples: Arabic and Hebrew. See also vowel marker.
script, donor See script, source.
script, ideographic See script, logographic.
script, logographic A script consisting of logograms and belonging to the logo­gra­phic writ­ing system. Examples: Chinese; Japanese Kanji.
script, map See map script.
script, original See script, source.
script, receiver See script, target.
script, source A script in terms of which a toponym is produced, and on the basis of which it may be converted for use in another script called target script.
script, syllabic A script belonging to the syllabic writing system in which all, or the majority of, characters each represent an entire syllable. Exam­ples: Ethiopian Amharic; Japanese Katakana and Hiragana; Inuktitut syllabics. Korean, though alphabetic, is graphi­cally and visua­lly syllabic.
script, target A script into which a toponym may be converted from its source script. See also transliteration. Example: Roman script in the romanizat­ion of Greek.
segment In linguistics, any discrete unit which can be identi­fied in the stream of speech. Examples: phonemes; consonants; vowels.
semantics That branch of linguistics which deals with meaning.
sequence rules Rules that indicate in which order words (e.g. toponyms in a gazetteer) should be arranged with respect to the sequence of their letters, syllabograms or logograms. Problems may arise espe­cial­ly with letters omitted in the conventional way of citing the alphabet or letters with markers or diacritics such as , , , ß in German; ll or ñ in Spanish as well as with hyphenated words.
short form (of a name) In toponymy, the abbreviated or short version of a name. Examples: China, for People's Republic of China; Jordan, for The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Complementary term: long form.
short title See short form (of a name).
sign, diacritical See diacritic.
simplex name See name, simplex.
simplified character see character, simplified.
software Programs, procedures and data associated with the operation of a computer system. Complementary term: hardware.
source language See language, source.
source script See script, source.
specific element That part of a toponym which does not constitute a generic term and which distin­guishes it from others of the same feature class. It may include an article and/or other linguistic elements. Exam­ples: Port Elizabeth; Rio Negro; Cape of Good Hope.
speech An oral manifestation of language.
speech community A group of people who communicate orally with relative ease in a common language or dialect.
standard language See language, standard.
standardization (a) The establishment, by an appropriate authority, of a specific set of standards or norms, e.g. for the uniform rendering of topo­nyms. (b) Rendering an item such as a toponym in accordance with such norms.
standardization, geographical names The prescription by a names authority of one or more particular names, together with their precise written form, for application to a specific geographical feature, as well as the conditions for their use. In a wider sense, standardization of toponyms.
standardization, international, geographical names Activity aimed at reaching maximum practical uniformity in the rendering ­ oral and written ­ of all geographical names on Earth (and in a wider sense, of toponyms of extraterrestrial fea­tures), by means of (1) national standardization, and/or (2) interna­tional convention, including the correspondence between different languag­es and writing systems.
standardization, national, geographical names Standardization of geographical names within the area of a national entity such as a state.
standardized allonym See allonym, standardized.
standardized name See name, standardized.
standardized toponym See name, standardized.
survey, names See survey, toponymic.
survey, toponymic The entire spectrum of activities involved in the collection, recor­ding and processing of toponyms in a specified area.
syllabary An ordered set of syllabograms representing all syllables of a particular language which uses syllabic script. Example: the set of syllabograms of Japanese Katakana ­ _, _, _, _, _, _, _ for a, ka, sa, ta, na, ha, ma, respectively, etc.; Inuktitut Ù, >, <, Ç, É, Ì for pi, pu, pa, ti, tu, ta, etc.
syllabic (as a noun) See syllabogram. Predominantly used in the plural as syllabics.
syllabic (as an adjective) Consisting of or relating to syllables.
syllabic script See script, syllabic.
syllabification Division of a word into syllables. Examples: Val-pa-ra-i-so; O-ban.
syllable Unit of speech including (or consisting of) a single vowel sound or vowel function, or a diphthong or a triphthong; the first divi­sion of a word. Examples: Ge-no-va in Genova; Hei-del-berg in Hei­del­berg; Br-no in Brno.
syllabogram Graphic character representing a syllable in syllabic script.
synonym Each of two or more words which have approximately the same meaning.
syntax That part of linguistics which deals with the mutual relations be­tween, and correct arrangement of, words in a sentence.